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Diktatoren liste

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diktatoren liste

Mai Der Begriff kommt aus dem Lateinischen: „Diktator“ heißt in der und damit ist die Liste der schlimmsten Diktatoren keinesfalls vollständig. Das US-Magazin Foreign Policy hat die "grausamsten Diktatoren der Welt" .. Dies ist eine Liste der Diktatoren, nicht Diktaturen, und USA & Israel sind keine. Liste: Bekannte sowie berühmt-berüchtigte Diktatoren und Diktatorinnen von heute und aus der Geschichte auf hydrowalker.eu

Overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko in coup. No elections held during ongoing, interstate First and Second Congo Wars. President of Liberia Elected, but widely described as a dictator see [16] , [17] , [18].

Linked to " blood diamonds " and illegal arms trading. Believed to have interfered frequently in the internal affairs of neighboring states while a warlord , before his election to the presidency.

President of the Central African Republic to date. Gained power in a coup and suspended the constitution, though he has restored some democracy see [19].

Ely Ould Mohamed Vall. Chairman of the Military Council for Justice and Democracy. Gained power via a military coup. Though he has said to relinquish power to an elected government in Elected President of Zambia.

Sata shut down the opposition and maintains relationships with Robert Mugabe. Supported by the Muslim Brotherhood. Described Jews as "apes and pigs".

Massively expanded his presidential authority upon being elected, giving himself unlimited powers. Repressive, cracked down on free speech and any opposition.

Desposed when popular opposition forced him to abdicate. President or Provisional President of Mexico , then to February , June to December , March to September and finally When Anastasio Bustamante led a coup overthrowing and killing President Vicente Guerrero , Santa Anna seized power and then was elected President in He was overthrown and restored to power several times before his final overthrow in Interim president ; President of Mexico , De facto ruler Gained power in a coup, after his Revolution of Tuxtepac overthrew his predecessor, Lerdo.

He did not run for reelection after his first term in order to keep his one-term promises that he made during his revolution. However, he retook the presidency a few years later and did not leave from power until the Revolution of kicked him from the Presidency.

However, the poor became quite miserable during this time. He was eventually overthrown by the Revolution which lasted 10 years. Appointed president, established a military dictatorship for about a year, and then was forced to resign.

Gained power in a coup; styled himself President for Life. An American fillibuster takes over and proclaims himself President of Nicaragua. Tried to conquer several Central American countries.

Never elected; subverted constitution; widely described as a dictator see [20] , [21]. Constructed numerous large Hellenic -style temples as monuments to his rule.

Acting President ; President of El Salvador Gained power in a coup; suppressed opposition; oversaw massacre of between ten and forty thousand suspected opponents.

Presided over La Matanza in , a massacre genocide of communists, suspected communists, campesinos and Pipil Indians see [22]. Elected, but suppressed opposition and "assumed dictatorial powers".

Banned opposition and set up a rubber-stamp congress; suppressed unions see [23]. Somoza used his position as head of the National Guard to overthrow President Juan Bautista Sacasa ; centralized constitutional authority under his control; alternately rigged elections for himself or installed relatives in his place; kleptocrat.

Junta Chairman, ; President of Guatemala Gained power in a coup; banned the popular Communist party ; purged trade unions of leftist influence; declared himself president in Military officer who allowed elections in before re-seizing power the next year.

According to Clara Nieto in Masters of War: Succeeded his somewhat more liberal brother Luis ; stepped down briefly in , then resumed the presidency after an earthquake; outlawed several opposition parties; declared martial law in response to guerilla opposition; oversaw brutal repression by the National Guard.

Commander of the National Guard. Gained power in a coup; banned opposition, unions and free press. Chairman of military junta ; President of Guatemala Dictator during a military coup.

Known for scorched earth counter-insurgency strategies. Since then was Head of Congress for many years and made several failed attempts to be elected democratically.

Used his declared conservative evangelical Christian beliefs to portray dissent as an attack against God. Came in power by a coup, with his Leftist Sandinistas.

Commander of the National Guard and de facto military leader, widely described as a dictator see [26] , [27] , [28].

Installed a police state. Cult of personality; citizens forced to raise their hats or a brim when he passed by; styled himself with the position name "El Supremo".

Though an admirer of classical liberal democracy, the founder and president of Gran Colombia proclaimed himself dictator in after an unsuccessful constitutional convention.

Resigned eighteen months later. Juan Manuel de Rosas. Assumed dictatorial powers; exiled opponents. Provisional President of Bolivia ; President of Bolivia Unelected military ruler; caudillo.

A populist and nationalist who voluntarily relinquished power after elections, described in ISBN , p. Inherited power from his father; had himself awarded immense powers by a congress he had packed with supporters.

Provisional President ; President of Bolivia Gained power in a coup and ruthlessly suppressed opposition. In he sent the army to suppress an uprising by Huaichu Indians attempting to regain land privileges they enjoyed under President Belzu see ISBN Described, perhaps inaccurately, as a "benevolent despot"; other sources mention his "long dictatorship" see [29].

Supreme Chief ; Provisional President - , - ; President of Venezuela - , - Took over in a military coup see [30].

President - , as a military ruler representing the Conservatives. However, Reyes ruled as a dictator. He dissolved the congress and replaced it with a handpicked legislature, jailed and exiled political opponents, and declared martial law.

Provisional President ; President of Venezuela , , Gained power in a coup; never elected; kleptocrat; widely described as a dictator see [31] , [32] , [33].

Junta Chairman ; President of Peru , Twice gained power by coup. Gained power in a coup; ignored constitution; suppressed and exiled opposition.

Acting President , President - Democratically elected to a six-year term in Head of provisional government after revolution; indirectly elected as Constitutional President ; launched a coup in and became dictator ; democratically-elected President of Brazil Provisional president ; President of Paraguay Seized absolute power; ruled by diktat until Chairman of military junta - ; President of Peru - Gained power in a coup; restricted civil rights; allowed election in Member of military junta - ; Provisional president ; President of Venezuela - He took over in a military coup see [34] , [35] , [36].

Gained power in a coup; abolished most opposition; subsequently appointed by congress. Chairman of the military junta, January jointly with Alfredo Ovando ; President of Bolivia, August - Prime Minister - ; President - Elected, but became increasingly dictatorial; held dubious elections and encouraged leftist religious cults such as the Peoples Temple to settle in the Guyanese interior see [37] , [38].

Artur da Costa e Silva. President of Brazil Elected in , but centralised power; closed the Congress; banned opposition; suspended free press.

Decreed Institutional Act No. Appointed by congress, but instituted a military government; suppressed press and opposition see [39].

Gained power in a coup; suppressed opposition; closed universities; 3, opponents arrested, killed. President of Uruguay - Elected, but installed a military government, dissolved Congress, suspended civil liberties and banned unions.

Gained power in a coup; suppressed and exiled opposition; over " disappearances " and 28, tortured. Congress-appointed President of Brazil.

The fourth of the military dictators; party and union freedom were still inexistent during his term; had oppositionists like journalist Wladimir Herzog and factory worker Manoel Fiel Filho tortured and murdered.

Gained power in a coup; never elected; between ten and thirty thousand opponents killed. Society won some democratic measures these years, but there was still a major fraud during State government elections.

His government was responsible for the bomb in the Riocentro. Chairman of the National Military Council Gained power in a coup; never elected; widespread misrule.

Most infamous atrocity is the Decembermoorden. Gained power in the "Cocaine Coup" aided by Klaus Barbie ; highly repressive; over 1, killed.

Ignored constitution; extensive human rights abuses see [40]. President of Argentina Gained power in a coup see [41] , [42].

Deposed after failed invasion of the Falkland Islands in President of Peru , widely critizised for his political authoritarism.

After enjoying a certain degree of popular support, Fujimori was forced from office following controversial third term re-election [46].

In political opponent Mario Vargas Llosa called Fujimori a "dictator" [47]. His government was also marked by the influence of the director of the SIN, Vladimiro Montesinos [48] [49].

Currently in Peru, Fujimori is in trial for presumed charges ranging from corruption to participation in crimes against humanity.

Appointed special powers, nationalized the media and oil companies,Shut down opposition media and banned "The Simpsons.

President of the Dominican Republic five times. Gained power following coups; never elected. President of the Dominican Republic three times.

Never elected; widely described as a dictator see [51] , [52] , [53]. A follower of Benito Mussolini , he is widely described as a dictator see [54] , [55].

President of the Dominican Republic - , - ; de facto ruler Gained power in a coup; cult of personality renamed the capital Ciudad Trujillo ; promoted racism against Haitians and ordered the massacre of 20, blacks.

President of Cuba ; Gained power the second time in a coup; suppressed opposition violently. Use of torture and collective punishment. Elected in , but banned opposition; declared himself President for Life in ; highly repressive.

Gained power after revolution. Castro was elected President after , but within a one-party Communist state. Retired due to his poor health. Inherited presidency aged 19 from his father; never elected.

Prime Minister of Grenada Widely described as a dictator see [56] , [57] , [58]. De facto ruler for a relatively short period of time.

Gained power in a coup see [59]. He became ruler by dropping his father Bayezid II from the throne. In , he usurped the caliphate from the Mamluk Sultanate.

He abolished the constitutional regime in , and established an oppressive regime. The dissidents were imprisoned or exiled through agents.

Newspapers, magazines and books were censored. They made a coup on the worsening of the First Balkan War and took over the administration.

Marshal and first President of Turkey. Led the Turkish national movement. Transformed Turkey into a secular republic through broad authoritarian reforms.

Gained power by coup; viewed by some as benevolent see [60]. Gained power in a coup; totalitarian; [Citation Needed] cult of personality; oversaw Hama massacre yielding twenty to forty thousand dead see [61].

As Supreme Leader , held ultimate and uncontested authority over all government matters under the principle of Guardianship. Created the extra-constitutional Special Clerical Court system in , accountable only to the Supreme Leader and used principally for suppression of political dissent.

Instituted routine torture, beheadings for children. Pressured Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr to resign in and formally became president. Repressive; developed extensive personality cult; deposed by United States and coalition forces in an invasion.

Only permitts government-organized demonstrations. Allows a multi-party government but disallows the candidacy of true moderates.

No opposition permitted in election following death of his father; widely described as a dictator see [68] , [69] , [70].

Dubious election; opposition suppressed see [71]. Prime Minister of Turkey ; President of Turkey since His crackdowns on protests, restrictions on the media, banning of public websites, purging of prosecutors looking to investigate him, and general curbing of civil liberties follow the path of a typical autocrat.

He changed the constitution to enhance his autocratic powers and enshrine authoritarianism into law. Appointed but became increasingly authoritarian; widely described as a dictator see [72] , [73] , [74].

Described as authoritarian who is increasingly centralizing power see [75] , [76]. Elections essentially uncontested and unmonitored. Declared President for Life in ; cult of personality ; his book Ruhnama is to be treated with reverence see [77] , [78].

Considered a Theocratic Dictator who excercized strict sharia laws; allowed the persecution of Hazaras; gave Al Qaeda refuge in Afghanistan. Turkemnistan still continues to be oppressive and a single-party state.

Gained power in a coup. Subsequent elections considered dubious see [81] , [82]. Military ruler, gaining power from coup see [83] , [84] , [85].

Autocrat ; widely considered to be a dictator; no opposition or free press allowed. Took over following coup.

Claimed government to be legitimate because it was Islamic see [86]. Appointed supreme Martial Law Governor of Balochistan by central Pakistani military government following coup.

Deposed Nawaz Sharif in a military coup, calling it a necessity during a state of emergency. Governed directly as commander in chief until Parliament reconvened in November Opposition parties state that the rule of law in his custody has deteriorated further.

Shogun of Japan and founder of the long reigning Tokugawa shogunate. He also created an "alternate attendance" system to pacify the daimyo warlords, as well as closing and isolating trade and the economy, in order to retain his power.

His rule was also marked by persecution of European missionaries and Japanese Christians. President of the Republic of China , self-proclaimed Emperor of China , Ignored legislative consent as defined by the Constitution ; dissolved the National Assembly ; assassinated Song Jiaoren ; disbanded the Kuomintang.

Known as the "Generalissimo". Gained power by military force. Leader of anti-communist one-party state under the Kuomintang. Rule on mainland China repeatedly undermined by powerful regional factions, civil wars, and the war against Japan.

Ruled with an iron-fist following his retreat to Taiwan in Declared "Eternal President" on his death. Unelected; killed thousands of political rivals in the s; killed tens of thousands more during the land reforms of the s; presided over a one-party state.

First President of Indonesia. Consolidated his powers, and got proclaimed President for LIfe. Was overthrown by the then Dictator of Indonesia, Suharto.

Immense cult of personality; purged members of government; silenced opposition. Millions of Chinese citizens killed or murdered as a result of his policies and repression.

Unelected; autocratic; oppressed Buddhists see [89]. Took power in coup. Although initially welcomed by much of the population, he suspended the constitution in and introduced a new constitution that greatly increased his power.

Seized power in a coup; instituted extreme repression see [90] , [91]. Oppressed student-led uprisings in October and His New Order imprisoned Communists and alleged Communists; repressed Chinese inhabitants; made existing parties subordinate.

Described as a dictator in many sources see [92] , [93] , [94]. Unelected; led a Khmer Rouge dictatorship; responsible for deaths of at least 1 million Cambodian citizens during his rule.

Gained power in a coup; declared martial law; oversaw Gwangju Massacre. Unelected; one-party state see [95]. Released Aung San Suu Kyi in Army chief seized power while Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was out of the country.

A state of martial law was declared, parliament was dissolved and the constitution abrogated. Instituted press censorship and restrictions on protests.

The first Muslim in charge of the mostly Buddhist army. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas , one-party states , dominant-party states , and civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators.

They may hold left or right-wing views, or may be apolitical. Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic , the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now.

A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later.

Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers. As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications.

For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in , Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" see Dictatorship of Garibaldi.

Past that time, however, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression.

As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania.

Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours.

A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator.

A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term.

It might be seen as a republican form of enlightened despotism. The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms.

In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain ; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces.

In other cases, the association is mere pretense. Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation , such as Mussolini and Hitler.

Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco. Because of its negative associations, modern leaders very rarely if ever use the term dictator in their formal titles.

In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:. Russia during the Civil War. Under the Soviet leaders Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin , government policy was enforced by extrajudicial killings , secret police originally known as the Cheka and the notorious Gulag system of concentration camps.

Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time.

Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,, Pol Pot became dictator of Cambodia in In all, an estimated 1.

The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators. Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion.

Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers the nobility or the army.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the ancient Roman title, see Roman dictator.

Ahidjo resigned on November 6, and Biya became president. Was forced from power after a series of mass protests. Any years of elected and judicial rule may be indicated parenthetically. After years of totalitarian rule, he allowed the creation of opposition parties in but his re-elections 888 casino slots login been marked by widespread fraud and intimidation. He attempted to develop a personality cult; large posters of him were ascenso in the capital Mogadishu during his transfer in der bundesliga, many of which can still lucky lucky seen today. Prime Minister of Portugal. Junta Chairman ; President of Peru In political opponent Mario Vargas Llosa called Fujimori a club world casino no deposit bonus codes 2019 [47]. Leader of anti-communist one-party state under the Kuomintang. Unelected, suppressed opposition in what was termed "The Columbia casino travemünde Revolution". King of Yugoslavia from The Enabling Act suspended most of the constitution and allowed Hitler to rule by decree. Elected, but became increasingly dictatorial; held dubious elections and encouraged leftist religious cults such as the Peoples Temple to settle in the Guyanese interior see [37][38]. Gained power in a coup; never elected; between ten and thirty thousand botola pro killed. Succeeded his somewhat more liberal brother Luis ; stepped down briefly inthen resumed the presidency after an earthquake; outlawed several opposition parties; declared martial law altach response to guerilla opposition; oversaw brutal repression by the National Guard.

liste diktatoren - something

China hatte nie Kommunismus, sie waren immer kapitalistisch. Präsident Berdimuhamedow verfügt heute bereits über ein Museum seiner selbst und im gesamten Land schaut er von haushohen Plakatwänden auf seine Untertanen herab — Sinnbild eines überbordenden Personenkults und sicher auch ein Sinnbild des allgegenwärtigen Überwachungsstaats im zentralasiatischen Turkmenistan. Die Bevölkerung spürt das zunehmend und sie demonstriert heftig, auch gegen die manipulierten Wahlen. November im Alter von 82 Jahren in Madrid. Dasselbe Regime mit den mehr als grausamen "Tonton Macoutes", bezeichnenderweise nach einem Voodoo-Monster benannt, das Kinder in einen Sack steckt, um sie später zu fressen. Den 2WK hätte auch ohne Hitler gegeben, vielleicht mit Stalin. Die Liste seiner blumigen Titel ist symptomatisch: Hätte er nicht verloren wären es aber wahrscheinlich wirklich mehr. Benito Mussolini Er war von bis der Diktator Italiens.

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Diktatoren liste - phrase simply

Schnelle Antwort wäre super!: Karimovs Politik wird in Bezug auf Menschenrechte und Pressefreiheit aber international heftig kritisiert. Gaddafi Diktator sehr lustig 40 jahre regiert wasser, Strom Medikamente ärztliche behanlungen alles umsonst ohne schulden ein reiches land warum gestürzt wurde weil er die Wahrheiten gesagt hat man lügt über Gaddafi ohne ende. Bestes Beispiel sind die ruandischen Präsidentschaftswahlen, bei denen Oppositionelle mit Konsequenz ausgeschlossen werden. Stalin und Kim il-Sung haben sicherlich mehr Menschen auf dem Gewissen als diese lächerlichen fast 30 Millionen. Vervielfältigung nur mit schriftlicher Genehmigung. Er wurde in Koboko in Uganda geboren und starb am

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Diese Liste sollte auch nicht den Anspruch auf Wahrheit erheben Jean-Claude Duvalier Diktator Haitis von bis Mit Gadaffi gaebe es den arabischen Fruehling und den IS nicht. Than Shwe, Burma Platz drei: Amin gilt als Inbegriff eines brutalen Gewaltherrschers. Was der alles getan hat, ist teilweise echt unaussprechlich. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. Zayid bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Deutschland hat den USA den Krieg erklärt. Die USA lässt Pahlavi als gut darstellen, anstatt böse Isa bin Salman Al Chalifa. Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Mahmud Ahmadinejad, Iran Ahmadinejad belegt den achten Platz: Hamad bin Isa Al Chalifa. Nominelle Regierungsfunktionen in den Palästinensischen Autonomiegebieten im Westjordanland und dem Gazastreifen werden jedoch von der Palästinensischen Autonomiebehörde ausgeübt, die von der PLO und Israel einvernehmlich gegründet wurde und der Abbas ebenfalls vorsteht. Oft schaut er recht grimmig drein: Benito Mussolini Er war von bis der Diktator Italiens. In dem daraus resultierenden Geldsegen liegt ein weiterer Grund für die relative Ruhe im Lande, der versammelten kleptokratischen Eliten zum Trotz. König von Gottesgnaden prozentual zu seinen belgischen Untertanen steht bei mir auf 1 Stelle. Gleichzeitig hofierten sie den dicken, mondgesichtigen Potentaten in einer schreiend bunten, opulenten Bildergalerie.

Appointed president, established a military dictatorship for about a year, and then was forced to resign.

Gained power in a coup; styled himself President for Life. An American fillibuster takes over and proclaims himself President of Nicaragua.

Tried to conquer several Central American countries. Never elected; subverted constitution; widely described as a dictator see [20] , [21].

Constructed numerous large Hellenic -style temples as monuments to his rule. Acting President ; President of El Salvador Gained power in a coup; suppressed opposition; oversaw massacre of between ten and forty thousand suspected opponents.

Presided over La Matanza in , a massacre genocide of communists, suspected communists, campesinos and Pipil Indians see [22]. Elected, but suppressed opposition and "assumed dictatorial powers".

Banned opposition and set up a rubber-stamp congress; suppressed unions see [23]. Somoza used his position as head of the National Guard to overthrow President Juan Bautista Sacasa ; centralized constitutional authority under his control; alternately rigged elections for himself or installed relatives in his place; kleptocrat.

Junta Chairman, ; President of Guatemala Gained power in a coup; banned the popular Communist party ; purged trade unions of leftist influence; declared himself president in Military officer who allowed elections in before re-seizing power the next year.

According to Clara Nieto in Masters of War: Succeeded his somewhat more liberal brother Luis ; stepped down briefly in , then resumed the presidency after an earthquake; outlawed several opposition parties; declared martial law in response to guerilla opposition; oversaw brutal repression by the National Guard.

Commander of the National Guard. Gained power in a coup; banned opposition, unions and free press. Chairman of military junta ; President of Guatemala Dictator during a military coup.

Known for scorched earth counter-insurgency strategies. Since then was Head of Congress for many years and made several failed attempts to be elected democratically.

Used his declared conservative evangelical Christian beliefs to portray dissent as an attack against God. Came in power by a coup, with his Leftist Sandinistas.

Commander of the National Guard and de facto military leader, widely described as a dictator see [26] , [27] , [28]. Installed a police state.

Cult of personality; citizens forced to raise their hats or a brim when he passed by; styled himself with the position name "El Supremo".

Though an admirer of classical liberal democracy, the founder and president of Gran Colombia proclaimed himself dictator in after an unsuccessful constitutional convention.

Resigned eighteen months later. Juan Manuel de Rosas. Assumed dictatorial powers; exiled opponents. Provisional President of Bolivia ; President of Bolivia Unelected military ruler; caudillo.

A populist and nationalist who voluntarily relinquished power after elections, described in ISBN , p. Inherited power from his father; had himself awarded immense powers by a congress he had packed with supporters.

Provisional President ; President of Bolivia Gained power in a coup and ruthlessly suppressed opposition. In he sent the army to suppress an uprising by Huaichu Indians attempting to regain land privileges they enjoyed under President Belzu see ISBN Described, perhaps inaccurately, as a "benevolent despot"; other sources mention his "long dictatorship" see [29].

Supreme Chief ; Provisional President - , - ; President of Venezuela - , - Took over in a military coup see [30]. President - , as a military ruler representing the Conservatives.

However, Reyes ruled as a dictator. He dissolved the congress and replaced it with a handpicked legislature, jailed and exiled political opponents, and declared martial law.

Provisional President ; President of Venezuela , , Gained power in a coup; never elected; kleptocrat; widely described as a dictator see [31] , [32] , [33].

Junta Chairman ; President of Peru , Twice gained power by coup. Gained power in a coup; ignored constitution; suppressed and exiled opposition.

Acting President , President - Democratically elected to a six-year term in Head of provisional government after revolution; indirectly elected as Constitutional President ; launched a coup in and became dictator ; democratically-elected President of Brazil Provisional president ; President of Paraguay Seized absolute power; ruled by diktat until Chairman of military junta - ; President of Peru - Gained power in a coup; restricted civil rights; allowed election in Member of military junta - ; Provisional president ; President of Venezuela - He took over in a military coup see [34] , [35] , [36].

Gained power in a coup; abolished most opposition; subsequently appointed by congress. Chairman of the military junta, January jointly with Alfredo Ovando ; President of Bolivia, August - Prime Minister - ; President - Elected, but became increasingly dictatorial; held dubious elections and encouraged leftist religious cults such as the Peoples Temple to settle in the Guyanese interior see [37] , [38].

Artur da Costa e Silva. President of Brazil Elected in , but centralised power; closed the Congress; banned opposition; suspended free press.

Decreed Institutional Act No. Appointed by congress, but instituted a military government; suppressed press and opposition see [39].

Gained power in a coup; suppressed opposition; closed universities; 3, opponents arrested, killed. President of Uruguay - Elected, but installed a military government, dissolved Congress, suspended civil liberties and banned unions.

Gained power in a coup; suppressed and exiled opposition; over " disappearances " and 28, tortured. Congress-appointed President of Brazil.

The fourth of the military dictators; party and union freedom were still inexistent during his term; had oppositionists like journalist Wladimir Herzog and factory worker Manoel Fiel Filho tortured and murdered.

Gained power in a coup; never elected; between ten and thirty thousand opponents killed. Society won some democratic measures these years, but there was still a major fraud during State government elections.

His government was responsible for the bomb in the Riocentro. Chairman of the National Military Council Gained power in a coup; never elected; widespread misrule.

Most infamous atrocity is the Decembermoorden. Gained power in the "Cocaine Coup" aided by Klaus Barbie ; highly repressive; over 1, killed.

Ignored constitution; extensive human rights abuses see [40]. President of Argentina Gained power in a coup see [41] , [42].

Deposed after failed invasion of the Falkland Islands in President of Peru , widely critizised for his political authoritarism. After enjoying a certain degree of popular support, Fujimori was forced from office following controversial third term re-election [46].

In political opponent Mario Vargas Llosa called Fujimori a "dictator" [47]. His government was also marked by the influence of the director of the SIN, Vladimiro Montesinos [48] [49].

Currently in Peru, Fujimori is in trial for presumed charges ranging from corruption to participation in crimes against humanity.

Appointed special powers, nationalized the media and oil companies,Shut down opposition media and banned "The Simpsons. President of the Dominican Republic five times.

Gained power following coups; never elected. President of the Dominican Republic three times. Never elected; widely described as a dictator see [51] , [52] , [53].

A follower of Benito Mussolini , he is widely described as a dictator see [54] , [55]. President of the Dominican Republic - , - ; de facto ruler Gained power in a coup; cult of personality renamed the capital Ciudad Trujillo ; promoted racism against Haitians and ordered the massacre of 20, blacks.

President of Cuba ; Gained power the second time in a coup; suppressed opposition violently. Use of torture and collective punishment.

Elected in , but banned opposition; declared himself President for Life in ; highly repressive. Gained power after revolution. Castro was elected President after , but within a one-party Communist state.

Retired due to his poor health. Inherited presidency aged 19 from his father; never elected. Prime Minister of Grenada Widely described as a dictator see [56] , [57] , [58].

De facto ruler for a relatively short period of time. Gained power in a coup see [59]. He became ruler by dropping his father Bayezid II from the throne.

In , he usurped the caliphate from the Mamluk Sultanate. He abolished the constitutional regime in , and established an oppressive regime.

The dissidents were imprisoned or exiled through agents. Newspapers, magazines and books were censored.

They made a coup on the worsening of the First Balkan War and took over the administration. Marshal and first President of Turkey.

Led the Turkish national movement. Transformed Turkey into a secular republic through broad authoritarian reforms. Gained power by coup; viewed by some as benevolent see [60].

Gained power in a coup; totalitarian; [Citation Needed] cult of personality; oversaw Hama massacre yielding twenty to forty thousand dead see [61].

As Supreme Leader , held ultimate and uncontested authority over all government matters under the principle of Guardianship.

Created the extra-constitutional Special Clerical Court system in , accountable only to the Supreme Leader and used principally for suppression of political dissent.

Instituted routine torture, beheadings for children. Pressured Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr to resign in and formally became president. Repressive; developed extensive personality cult; deposed by United States and coalition forces in an invasion.

Only permitts government-organized demonstrations. Allows a multi-party government but disallows the candidacy of true moderates. No opposition permitted in election following death of his father; widely described as a dictator see [68] , [69] , [70].

Dubious election; opposition suppressed see [71]. Prime Minister of Turkey ; President of Turkey since His crackdowns on protests, restrictions on the media, banning of public websites, purging of prosecutors looking to investigate him, and general curbing of civil liberties follow the path of a typical autocrat.

He changed the constitution to enhance his autocratic powers and enshrine authoritarianism into law. Appointed but became increasingly authoritarian; widely described as a dictator see [72] , [73] , [74].

Described as authoritarian who is increasingly centralizing power see [75] , [76]. Elections essentially uncontested and unmonitored. Declared President for Life in ; cult of personality ; his book Ruhnama is to be treated with reverence see [77] , [78].

Considered a Theocratic Dictator who excercized strict sharia laws; allowed the persecution of Hazaras; gave Al Qaeda refuge in Afghanistan.

Turkemnistan still continues to be oppressive and a single-party state. Gained power in a coup. Subsequent elections considered dubious see [81] , [82].

Military ruler, gaining power from coup see [83] , [84] , [85]. Autocrat ; widely considered to be a dictator; no opposition or free press allowed.

Took over following coup. Claimed government to be legitimate because it was Islamic see [86]. Appointed supreme Martial Law Governor of Balochistan by central Pakistani military government following coup.

Deposed Nawaz Sharif in a military coup, calling it a necessity during a state of emergency. Governed directly as commander in chief until Parliament reconvened in November Opposition parties state that the rule of law in his custody has deteriorated further.

Shogun of Japan and founder of the long reigning Tokugawa shogunate. He also created an "alternate attendance" system to pacify the daimyo warlords, as well as closing and isolating trade and the economy, in order to retain his power.

His rule was also marked by persecution of European missionaries and Japanese Christians. President of the Republic of China , self-proclaimed Emperor of China , Ignored legislative consent as defined by the Constitution ; dissolved the National Assembly ; assassinated Song Jiaoren ; disbanded the Kuomintang.

Known as the "Generalissimo". Gained power by military force. Leader of anti-communist one-party state under the Kuomintang.

Rule on mainland China repeatedly undermined by powerful regional factions, civil wars, and the war against Japan. Ruled with an iron-fist following his retreat to Taiwan in Declared "Eternal President" on his death.

Unelected; killed thousands of political rivals in the s; killed tens of thousands more during the land reforms of the s; presided over a one-party state.

First President of Indonesia. Consolidated his powers, and got proclaimed President for LIfe. Was overthrown by the then Dictator of Indonesia, Suharto.

Immense cult of personality; purged members of government; silenced opposition. Millions of Chinese citizens killed or murdered as a result of his policies and repression.

Unelected; autocratic; oppressed Buddhists see [89]. Took power in coup. Although initially welcomed by much of the population, he suspended the constitution in and introduced a new constitution that greatly increased his power.

Seized power in a coup; instituted extreme repression see [90] , [91]. Oppressed student-led uprisings in October and His New Order imprisoned Communists and alleged Communists; repressed Chinese inhabitants; made existing parties subordinate.

Described as a dictator in many sources see [92] , [93] , [94]. Unelected; led a Khmer Rouge dictatorship; responsible for deaths of at least 1 million Cambodian citizens during his rule.

Gained power in a coup; declared martial law; oversaw Gwangju Massacre. Unelected; one-party state see [95]. Released Aung San Suu Kyi in Army chief seized power while Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was out of the country.

A state of martial law was declared, parliament was dissolved and the constitution abrogated. Instituted press censorship and restrictions on protests.

The first Muslim in charge of the mostly Buddhist army. A Puritan general in the English Civil War who quickly rose through the ranks to become de facto head of the Parliamentary forces.

After the Royalist defeat and the execution of Charles I the newly constituted Rump Parliament was overthrown by Cromwell who refused the Crown, choosing instead the title of Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

After his death the monarchy was reinstated. To purge French society of "Counter Revolutionaries", he instituted the heavily repressive Reign of Terror, a period which killed thousands of French citizens, many of those killed were simply killed under mere suspicion, with little or no proof.

Desposed when the National Convention declared him an outlaw. Emperor of the French and once again from Declared himself "First Consul for Life" in and then Emperor in Grandson of Napoleon Bonaparte.

President of France from to In he launched a coup against the legislature, making himself absolute ruler.

Later during his reign constitutional liberties were gradually restored. In he was captured during the abortive Franco-Prussian War and deposed in his absence by the Third Republic of France.

Held official title of dictator for one year. Succeeded Marian Langiewicz who had declared himself dictator previously, but only lasted less than a year in Head of Bolshevik Revolution took power in Secured victory in the Russian civil war.

Headed effort to transform the Russian economy to a socialist model. Miguel Primo de Rivera. Prime Minister of Spain.

Gained power in a coup; suspended the constitution; established martial law; imposed strict censorship; banned all political parties.

Widely described as a dictator see [] , [] , []. Never elected; cult of personality; militant atheist , heavily repressive; responsible for deaths of millions of Soviet citizens see [] , [] , [].

Described as a dictator see [] , [] , []. Forced to flee with his wife, Queen Geraldine, the imminent takeover of the country by Italy under Benito Mussolini.

Head of Ditadura Nacional. Polish Head of State , but regained power in via coup. Initiated authoritarian Sanacja government; often described as a "benevolent dictator".

Seized power in a military coup see [] ; authoritarian rule. His description as a dictator is common see [] , but not universal. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later.

Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers. As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications.

For example, when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in , Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" see Dictatorship of Garibaldi.

Past that time, however, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression.

As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours.

A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator.

A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term.

It might be seen as a republican form of enlightened despotism. The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms.

In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain ; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces.

In other cases, the association is mere pretense. Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation , such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco.

Because of its negative associations, modern leaders very rarely if ever use the term dictator in their formal titles.

In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:. Russia during the Civil War. Under the Soviet leaders Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin , government policy was enforced by extrajudicial killings , secret police originally known as the Cheka and the notorious Gulag system of concentration camps.

Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time.

Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,, Pol Pot became dictator of Cambodia in In all, an estimated 1.

The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators. Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion.

Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers the nobility or the army.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the ancient Roman title, see Roman dictator. For other uses, see Dictator disambiguation.

For the American band, see The Dictators. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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